Share Your Story Grief is quite common and is the normal internal feeling one experiences in reaction to a loss, while bereavement is the state of having experienced that loss. Although most commonly discussed in reference to the death of a loved one, any major loss for example, breakup of a relationship, job loss, or loss of living situation can result in a grief reaction. It is influenced by personal, familial, cultural, religious, and societal beliefs and customs. The potential negative effects of a grief reaction can be significant and are often aggravated by grief triggers, events that remind the griever of their loved one, or the circumstances surrounding their loss.
Adjusted for age, family size, year of study, smoking habit, physical activity, alcoholic intake and BMI. Discussion The results of this study showed that the proportion of stressed students and individual stress levels were higher during the examination period than the pre-examination periods i.
This coincides with the higher prevalence of MSDs recorded at the examination period. These findings provide added support to prior studies that implicate studying and taking examinations as the greatest source of academic stress among students 78.
Current evidence suggests that academic stressors are good models of naturally occurring stress in humans 1and a link between stressors peculiar to academic environments and the development of MSDs has been established These assertions have gained added support from findings of other studies in the literature.
In a study carried out by Smith et al. Students with high mental pressure at school had about three times the odds of reporting low-back pain. Similarly, Lundberg 25 found that psychosocial stress can increase the activity of the trapezius muscle with associated development of neck pain.
A consistent finding was obtained in a study carried out by Birch et al. These could lead to an increased biomechanical load and resulting MSDs of the affected body parts. However, physiological mechanisms uphold the neurohormonal theory, which suggests that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical HPA axis is activated by a wide variety of stresses, which in turn stimulate the synthesis and secretion of glucocorticoids In addition, plasma concentrations of norepinephrine NEepinephrine Eadrenocortropic hormone ACTHcortisol Corand prolactin are proven to reflect stress level 1.
Empirical evidence suggests that stress responses can cause dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis According to the model proposed by Aptel et al. These pathways include catecholamine, adrenal gland, reticular formation, and immune system pathways.
Stress-induced catecholamine release enhances arteriolar vasoconstriction, which leads to reduced nutrient delivery within the microcirculatory system of muscles and tendons, resulting in poor healing of micro lesions in tendon fibers and finally muscle fatigue and pain.
Stress can also cause the adrenal glands to release corticosteroid, which can disrupt mineral balance through the effect on the kidneys, with consequent edema.
Again, reticular formation is activated by stress, leading to an increased level of muscle activity and an increase in biomechanical load. In the immune system, stress can lead to increased production of cytokines, causing inflammation of tendons and resulting in MSDs Apart from psychosocial factors, academic stressors also encompass biomechanical physical stress.
Physical stress could be imposed on the body by protracted periods of poor study posture such as sitting on a chair improperly, static loading, or sustained exertion and mechanical contact stress These could lead to muscle and joint imbalance, strain, and soft-tissue stresses that could become habitual, resulting in chronic or recurring pain and episodes of pain.
Another significant finding of the present study was the effect of individual variables on the prevalence of MSDs. Such variables as gender, body mass index a measure of obesityand physical activity status differed significantly between those with and those without MSDs.
These could have directly or indirectly influenced the prevalence of MSDs through their effect on stress tolerance, stressors, reaction to stress, and coping strategies adopted to combat stress.
For instance, female participants experienced higher levels of stress and MSDs, and the most common forms of stress among them were those related to changes and pressures, whereas frustrations and self-imposed stressors were more common in males.
In addition, while cognitive and emotional reactions to stress were more common in females, behavioral and physiological reactions were predominant in males. Males engaged in more active practical and distracting coping, whereas females utilized religious and avoidance coping.
The higher levels of stress and MSDs found among female participants in the present study lend credence to the results of several studies with similar findings 31 This could be because women naturally tend to perceive more stress than men 33they have stronger reactions mostly emotional to stress than men do 34and they generally desire to be noticed and loved and to seek perfect solutions to problems Emerging evidence suggests that gender is an important biological determinant of psychosocial stress and human health, with a clear pattern for sex-specific prevalence of several physical disorders Unlike men, women are physiologically predisposed to autoimmune diseases, chronic pain, depression, and anxiety disorders 37 There are strong indications that these may be sex-hormone mediated Additionally, on the basis of gender-role theory, gender-role socialization and gender-role strain could provide another useful explanation.
Women in general, and especially married women, have multiple roles to play, such as a mother, wife, and student, resulting in role strain. Therefore, they tend to face more stress and associated complications such as MSDs How to Relieve Stress.
Stress. We all deal with it.
Whether it arises from our jobs, family life, drama with friends, a relationship problem, or finances, stress is there. While a little stress is good for you, allowing you to grow. As with the acquisition of most skills, learning to cope with a disability is a function of experience and guidance from others.
The author, diagnosed with schizophrenia at age 25, is now a psychologist who works with persons who . Type or paste a DOI name into the text box. Click Go. Your browser will take you to a Web page (URL) associated with that DOI name.
Send questions or comments to doi. Stress is the body’s reaction to a challenge. Though stress is often perceived as bad, it can actually be good in some respects. The right kind of stress . A paper on Stress Stress and coping: a process Somatic Psychology: Stress August 12th, Stress and coping: a process The idea of stress is one that we, those of us in the American culture, live with all the time There is a sense that multitasking and always coping with “more” is a sign of success.
This is simply not a healthy way to live. Anxiety and distress are some of the many different emotions that patients may experience throughout their cancer illness, treatment, and beyond.
Get detailed information about emotional and psychological distress, anxiety, and coping skills in this expert-reviewed information summary.