Hallucinogen research paper

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Hallucinogen research paper

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Shamans of the native tribes of N. America used them to contact the spirit world of their ancestors, priests of S. America have used them extensively in rites to empower them with supernatural visions, and in more modern times psychologists and researchers have sought to explore the human psyche by inducing hallucinatory states through their use.

Unfortunately, with the wide availability of LSD since the s many people have sought out these drugs for less noble Hallucinogen research paper and LSD use has skyrocketed.

LSD is probably the most well known psychedelic drug, however there are many other compounds that fall into this class that are widely available today.

There are perhaps more psychoactive hallucinogenic compounds available than ever before. Many of the newer discovered compounds are not well regulated or are not regualated at all, because before the DEA and other law enforcement and legislative bodies can catch up, whole new classes of compounds are being developed, tested and released on the streets.

Psilocybin and Mescaline have been used for over years by native peoples on both continents of the Americas. The active compound found in organic sources of hallucinogens are alkaloids that closely resemble the chemical structure of brain chemicals like the neurotransmitter seratonin, binding to seratonin receptor sites in the brain 2.

LSD and the newer synthetic alkaloids and tryptamines too resemble these compounds, but are manufactured in pharmaceutical labs both licitly and illicitly.

Psilocin 3d Molecular Diagram Psilocin is the metabolite of the alkaloid Psilocybin, present in Psilocybin Hallucinogen research paper like Psilocybe cubensis and Psilocybe semilanceata. Seratonin 3D Molecular Diagram Seratonin is an important neurotransmitter neccesary in normal functioning of perception, affect regulation and attention 2.

LSD Acid, Trip, Sunshine, Hits, LSD, Sugarcubes, Geltabs, Microdots Like most hallucinogens, the jury is still out on what the specific action of the compound is on the brain and why it produces such drastic changes in perception, mood and the senses.

Over the past 30 years there have been independent researchers working to unlock the riddle. As with most drugs that are primarily psychoactive meaning active in the brain rather than substances like alcohol and heroin, whose primary effects are felt in the body, it is first necessary to understand the complexities of the human mind.

There have been reports of latent psychological disturbances becoming apparent after just one use, intense life changing spriritual journeys and temprorary psychosis.

Because the range of effects are so severe and so unpredictable, that injust four years after the FDA first became aware of the drug the State of California made possesion and use of the drug illegal.

Little aparent use was evident in initial animal trials. Five years later Albert Hoffman accidentaly injests a small amount of LSD while working in his lab 3. He reports seeing "an uninterrupted stream of fantastic pictures, extraordinary shapes with intense, kaleidoscopelike play of colors.

In the man who would later become the self-effaced "guru" of the psychedelic movement, Timothy Leary, commences the Psychedelic Research Project at Harvard University. Inbefore being scheduled under the Controlled Substances Act, LSD is regulated by the FDA for research purposes only, restricting it's availabilty to non-researcher.

What has been perceived sometimes as the best and worst element of the s counter-cultural movement, the "psychedelic revolution" garnered phrases like "drop out and tune in", detatching themselves from the mainstream establishment and sought out the experience of becoming "psychedelisized".

The same year, Timothy Leary proclaims himself founder of the "League of Spiritual Development" and nominates LSD as the honorary sacrament of his newfound religion. Illegal distribution grows through this period, despite local and federal bans and levies 3,4.

My Problem Child" 3. This joy at having fathered LSD was tarnished after more than ten years of uninterrupted scientific research and medicinal use when LSD was swept up in the huge wave of an inebriant mania that began to spread over the Western world, above all the United States, at the end of the s.

It was strange how rapidly LSD adopted its new role as inebriant and, for a time, became the number-one inebriating drug, at least as far as publicity was concerned.

Hallucinogen research paper

The more its use as an inebriant was disseminated, bringing an upsurge in the number of untoward incidents caused by careless, medically unsupervised use, the more LSD became a problem child for me and for the Sandoz firm 5.

There is still very little evidence to support some of the earliest claims that LSD can cause mental illness in otherwise healthy individuals, but there is some evidence to support that an exacerbation or "awakening" of already present or latent psychological problems does occur with use.

There is also very little or no evidence to support that the drug has wonderous and beneficial qualities and will somehow single-handedly evolve human cognition. The problem, as with most drugs, is that most people today who use LSD are expecting the drug to effect their lives in some profound way, to change their feelings about something painful, to escape from everyday life and to mask issues with which should be handled by seeking professional help.

Because of this, the use of LSD can be unexpectedly traumatic to the psyche of the individual, worsening whatever issues were pre-existent before use. Fichman attributes much of the psychological activity to the chemical relationship of LSD to Seratonin: A useful explanation for the brain's receptivity to LSD is its structural similarity to serotonin.

The hypothalamus is part of the limbic system, which has a diverse array of functions associated with homeostasis, movement and more importantly emotion and organization of responses. Once the LSD molecule binds to the serotonin site, it alters the responsiveness of the subject's neurotransmitters.

A hallucinogen produces the sensory distortion known as hallucination by lowering the threshold at which nerves produce a response signal. This means that neurons which normally require a large chemical stimulus to produce a signal which is then sent to the brain produce signals at the slightest chemical prompting.

This increased volume of neuron activity and signaling means more sensory information is being sent to the brain than it can handle 6. Most researchers have a concurrent view of this philosophy.

However, this is where the known explanations end. There is still very little to explain why many individuals experience "flashbacks" or a re-experiencing of events while "tripping" on acid weeks and months after their last use, or why experiences exist during an LSD trip that can not be recreated without the use of psychoactively similar compounds, such as tasting color, seeing music and hearing inanimate objects breathe 7.Hallucinogens are illegal drugs that distort a person’s perception of reality.

They occur in chemical form (for example, LSD and MDMA, a synthetic drug better known by its street name Ecstasy or Molly) as well as in nature (psilocybin mushrooms and peyote). These drugs can produce visual and auditory hallucinations, feelings of detachment from one’s environment and oneself, and distortions.

Research Papers words ( pages) Hallucinogen Essay example - Hallucinogen While many drugs speed up or depress the central nervous system, there is a class of drugs that distorts how we feel, hear, see, smell, taste, and think.

Due to the freeze on hallucinogen research enacted by the United States and other Western countries in the ’s, neurologists have only recently been able to study psilocybin’s physiological and chemical actions in the brain in controlled scientific settings. In a survey of almost 2, people who said they had a past negative experience when taking "magic mushrooms" containing the hallucinogen psilocybin, more than 10 percent said they believed their worst "bad trip" had put themselves or others in harm's way, according to researchers at Johns Hopkins.

In a related paper, also published in the Journal of Psychopharmacology, researchers offer recommendations for conducting this type of research. The guidelines caution against giving hallucinogens to people at risk for psychosis or certain other serious mental disorders.

Subsequent research led to the isolation () and synthesis () of mescaline, the primary hallucinogenic component of peyote. Mescaline was thus the first hallucinogen to become available as a pharmaceutical preparation.

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