The "middle" of what? The "middle" between the Classical period and the Renaissance. To call something "medieval" these days is equate its sophistication with that of rural Arkansas.
The term comes from "Byzantium", the name of the city of Constantinople before it became Constantine's capital. This older name of the city would rarely be used from this point onward except in historical or poetic contexts.
Imperium Romanum, Imperium Romanorum; Greek: Res Publica Romana; Greek: Imperium Graecorum in the West to refer to the Eastern Roman Empire and of the Byzantine Emperor as Imperator Graecorum Emperor of the Greeks  were also used to separate it from the prestige of the Roman Empire within the new kingdoms of the West.
Needing Charlemagne's support in his struggle against his enemies in Rome, Leo used the lack of a male occupant of the throne of the Roman Empire at the time to claim that it was vacant and that he could therefore crown a new Emperor himself.
History of the Byzantine Empire Early history The Baptism of Constantine painted by Raphael 's pupils —, frescoVatican City, Apostolic Palace ; Eusebius of Caesarea records that as was common among converts of early Christianity Constantine delayed receiving baptism until shortly before his death  The Roman army succeeded in conquering many territories covering the entire Mediterranean region and coastal regions in southwestern Europe and north Africa.
These territories were home to many different cultural groups, both urban populations and rural populations.
Generally speaking, the eastern Mediterranean provinces were more urbanised than the western, having previously been united under the Macedonian Empire and Hellenised by the influence of Greek culture. This distinction between the established Hellenised East and the younger Latinised West persisted and became increasingly important in later centuries, leading to a gradual estrangement of the two worlds.
Byzantium under the Constantinian and Valentinian dynasties To maintain control and improve administration, various schemes to divide the work of the Roman Emperor by sharing it between individuals were tried between andfrom tofrom toand again between and Although the administrative subdivisions varied, they generally involved a division of labour between East and West.
Each division was a form of power-sharing or even job-sharingfor the ultimate imperium was not divisible and therefore the empire remained legally one state—although the co-emperors often saw each other as rivals or enemies. Inemperor Diocletian created a new administrative system the tetrarchyto guarantee security in all endangered regions of his Empire.
This book explores the relationship between the papacy and reform against the backdrop of social and religious change in later tenth and eleventh-century Europe. Placing this relationship in the context of the debate about "transformation", it reverses the recent trend among historians to emphasise the reform developments in the localities at the expense of those being undertaken in Rome. The history of Europe covers the peoples inhabiting Europe from the Industrial Revolution brought prosperity to Britain and Western Europe. The main powers set up colonies in most of the Americas and Africa, and parts of Asia. This linked England more closely with continental Europe through the introduction of a Norman aristocracy. The Early Middle Ages, Introduction. More danger threatened western Europe from. the south; in the late seventh century the Muslims prepared to invade Spain. from North Africa. During the tenth century the Icelandic Norsemen ventured on to Greenland and, later, to North America.
He associated himself with a co-emperor Augustusand each co-emperor then adopted a young colleague given the title of Caesarto share in their rule and eventually to succeed the senior partner. The tetrarchy collapsed, however, in and a few years later Constantine I reunited the two administrative divisions of the Empire as sole Augustus.
The western part collapsed in the s while the eastern part ended with the capture of Constantinople Constantine introduced important changes into the Empire's military, monetary, civil and religious institutions. As regards his economic policies in particular, he has been accused by certain scholars of "reckless fiscality", but the gold solidus he introduced became a stable currency that transformed the economy and promoted development.
Constantine established the principle that emperors could not settle questions of doctrine on their own, but should summon instead general ecclesiastical councils for that purpose. His convening of both the Synod of Arles and the First Council of Nicaea indicated his interest in the unity of the Church, and showcased his claim to be its head.
In and he issued a series of edicts essentially banning pagan religion. Pagan festivals and sacrifices were banned, as was access to all pagan temples and places of worship.
Arcadius in the East and Honorius in the West, once again dividing Imperial administration. In the 5th century the Eastern part of the empire was largely spared the difficulties faced by the West—due in part to a more established urban culture and greater financial resources, which allowed it to placate invaders with tribute and pay foreign mercenaries.
This success allowed Theodosius II to focus on the codification of Roman law and further fortification of the walls of Constantinoplewhich left the city impervious to most attacks until To fend off the HunsTheodosius had to pay an enormous annual tribute to Attila.
His successor, Marcianrefused to continue to pay the tribute, but Attila had already diverted his attention to the West. After Attila's death inthe Hun Empire collapsed, and many of the remaining Huns were often hired as mercenaries by Constantinople.
Odoacer, now ruler of Italy, was nominally Zeno's subordinate but acted with complete autonomy, eventually providing support to a rebellion against the Emperor.Introduction.
T hose interested in Celtic mythology, historians of the Welsh nation and students of the Arthurian tradition will all, at one time or another, have found themselves directed to a collection of Middle Welsh prose known by the curious name of the Mabinogion (pronounced Mabin-OGion).
Compiled from texts found in two late-medieval manuscripts – the Red Book of Hergest and the. Fragrances today are mostly a fusion of ingredients taken from nature – or inspired by nature – together with the synthetics (man-made ingredients) that are used to make them last longer, ‘carry further’, or stay ‘true’, when worn on the skin.
The Lotus and the River.
The flower so prolific in the imagery of both India and Egypt, grows out of the waters and opens its petals to be warmed by the sun: to be fertilized.
During the later seventeenth century urban revolts based on resentment of high taxation were common. Following the deaths of Louis XIII and Richelieu, Richelieu’s successor, Mazarin provoked an aristocratic rebellion that became known as the Fronde (). A New Civilization Emerges in Western Europe OUTLINE I.
Introduction the militarized aristocracy provided In the 8th century, the Carolingian family took over the Frankish monarchy. The most important of the Carolingian rulers was Charles the Great, . JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary sources.