Introduction It has been only years since humans first occupied the continent of Antarcticaand a mere years since seafarers first saw the islands of the Antarctic Peninsula
More History of the Azores by Robert L. The 17th century Portuguese writer, Antonio Vieira wrote, "God gave the Portuguese a small country as a cradle but all the world as their grave.
Theopompue in 4th century B. Pliny and Diodorus wrote of a large continent beyond to the west. Solon of Greece in B.
His account tells of a powerful land outside the columns of Hercules which was larger than Libya and Asia combined. It was a land that was the way to other lands, but it sank during a time of earthquakes and floods.
The water was so muddy from its sinking that it was impassable. But there were islands located in the Atlantic that were steeped in myth and seen on early maps. There were stories, such as Irish St. Brendan of Clonfert in sailing from Kerry and finding islands which may have been the Madeiras.
On a Catalan chart these mysterious Atlantic islands were identified as the Isles of St. Brendan and lie only a few hundred miles off the Strait of Gilbraltar. Mohammad al Edrisi was credited at one time of having located a series of islands which might have been the Cape Verdes, the Maderias, the Canaries, or possibly the Azores.
This was in the 12th century. A Medici map of contained seven islands off the Portuguese coast which were arranged in groups of three. It was thought that maybe the Genoese may have discovered the Azores at that time and gave those names. These speculative sightings indicate that there was some ocean exploration occurring, or at least, there was interest in what lay beyond confines of continental Europe.
Prince Henry the Navigator and the Age of Exploration Portuguese Prince Infante Dom Henriqueor Henry the Navigator, was exactly what the literature proclaimed him to be, the founder of modern navigation.
He was singularly instrumental in opening up the rest of the world to the Europeans. For the Azoreans, he was their founding father as we shall see. Henry studied the sea, weather, ships, geography and trade routes.
He talked to navigators, and sea captains.
He brought to his navigation school, which he founded at Sagres incosmographers, mathematicians, cartographers, and learned men of all kinds. He collected maps, charts, books, and ephemera that would educate him and his circle of adventurers.
The motive for this industry was to find a sea route to link up with the mythological Prester John, thereby encircling the Moslem world and with armies driving them from northern Africa and the Holy Land.
To do this Henry needed money which he could garner through trade once he found a sea route to India. He was the leader of the religious-military organization, the Holy Order of Christ. Its program of exploration, discovery, and settlement was for the purpose of conquering the Muslims.
He, his brothers, and his father, King John I of Portugal, did this in His captains kept logbooks of their voyages to document their experience for the knowledge of others.
They also used flat maps to record longitude and latitude thereby simplifying cartography methods. It took great courage to navigate the unexplored seas. There were winds, weather changes, and sea currents to master. A small wooden ship could be broken at sea. Supplies of food and water could run out during a voyage.Theology: Theology, philosophically oriented discipline of religious speculation and apologetics that is traditionally restricted, because of its origins and format, to Christianity but that may also encompass, because of its themes, other religions, including especially Islam and Judaism.
The themes of.
History Ancient world. An early astrolabe was invented in the Hellenistic civilization by Apollonius of Perga between and BC, often attributed to Hipparchus. The astrolabe was a marriage of the planisphere and dioptra, effectively an analog calculator capable of working out several different kinds of problems in astronomy. Geodesy (/dʒiːˈɒdɨsi/), also named geodetics, is the scientific discipline that deals with the measurement and representation of the Earth. The history of geodesy began in pre-scientific antiquity and blossomed during the Age of Enlightenment.. Early ideas about the figure of the Earth held the Earth to be flat (see flat Earth), and the heavens a physical . BibMe Free Bibliography & Citation Maker - MLA, APA, Chicago, Harvard.
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Current Affairs October Study Material: This month study material covers all parts of current affairs for the month of October like international and national etc. The Study of Astronomy During the medieval period, scientists in the Islamic world made many contributions to the field of astronomy.
While their work was based on ancient sources from Greece, Iran, and India, they updated methods for measuring and calculating the movement of heavenly bodies, and continued to develop models of the universe and the movements of the planets within it. The MendelWeb Glossary. This is a glossary of terms that appear in Mendel's paper and other areas of MendelWeb.
It is not meant to be exhaustive, and is aimed primarily at students in secondary and undergraduate schools.